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Eye Health: Common Eye Conditions and Care Options

Our eyes play a vital role in our daily lives, allowing us to see the world around us and experience the beauty it offers. We should prioritize our eye health to maintain a clear vision and prevent potential eye conditions. 

The Human Eye's Anatomy

The human eye consists of several components that work together to provide vision. The main parts include the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, and optic nerve. The cornea acts as a protective outer layer, while the lens focuses light onto the retina, located at the back of the eye. The retina contains cells that convert light into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve for interpretation.

Eye Care Professionals

1. Ophthalmologists:

Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who specialize in eye care. They are trained as experts in diagnosing and treating various eye conditions and diseases. Ophthalmologists can perform surgical procedures, such as cataract removal, glaucoma treatment, and laser eye surgery. They also manage eye-related complications associated with systemic diseases like diabetes. Regular visit to ophthalmologists is recommended for individuals with existing eye conditions. 

2. Optometrists:

Optometrists are primary eye care providers who can diagnose and manage common eye conditions. They conduct eye tests, prescribe corrective lenses (eyeglasses or contact lenses), and provide guidance on eye health. Optometrists can detect early signs of any eye disease, referring patients to ophthalmologists when necessary. 

Myopia, Hyperopia, and Astigmatism

All these conditions are called refractive errors. And they are conditions that affect how our eyes focus light onto the retina, causing blurred vision.

1. Myopia (nearsightedness)

Myopia occurs when the eyeball is slightly longer than usual or the cornea is too curved. This causes light to focus in front of the retina instead of on it, making distant objects appear blurry.


People with myopia may have trouble seeing distant objects clearly but can see nearby objects without difficulty. Symptoms may include squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and the need to sit close to the front in classrooms or theaters.

2. Hyperopia (farsightedness)

Hyperopia occurs when the eyeball is shorter than normal or the cornea is too flat. As a result, light focuses behind the retina instead of directly on it, making nearby objects appear blurry.


Hyperopia causes difficulty focusing on nearby objects, resulting in blurry vision. Individuals may experience eyestrain, headaches, and eye fatigue after prolonged close-up tasks such as reading or using a computer.

3. Astigmatism

 Astigmatism is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea or lens. This irregular shape prevents the eye from focusing light evenly onto the retina, resulting in blurred or distorted vision at various distances.


Astigmatism can cause both near and distance vision to appear blurry or distorted. Common symptoms include blurred vision, eyestrain, headaches, and difficulty seeing fine details.

Corrective Measures: Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses, and LASIK Surgery:

Several corrective measures are available to address refractive errors:

a. Eyeglasses:

Eyeglasses have lenses specifically designed to compensate for refractive errors. They help focus light properly onto the retina, providing clear vision. Eyeglasses are available in various styles and prescriptions tailored to individual needs.

b. Contact Lenses:

Contact lenses are thin, curved lenses that sit directly on the surface of the eye. They correct refractive errors by altering the way light enters the eye. Contact lenses offer an alternative to eyeglasses, providing improved field of view and freedom of movement.

c. LASIK Surgery:

LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) is a surgical procedure that reshapes the cornea using a laser. It aims to permanently correct refractive errors and reduce dependence on eyeglasses or contact lenses. LASIK surgery can provide long-lasting vision improvement, but it is not recommended for everyone.


Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, primarily due to increased pressure within the eye. There are two main types of glaucoma:

1. Open-angle glaucoma:

This is the most common type. It occurs when the drainage canals of the eye gradually become less efficient, leading to increased eye pressure over time.

2. Angle-closure glaucoma:

This type is less common but more urgent. It occurs when the drainage canals of the eye become blocked suddenly, causing a rapid increase in eye pressure.

Risk Factors and Symptoms

Several factors increase the risk of developing glaucoma. These include:

  1. Age: The risk of glaucoma increases with age, especially after the age of 60.
  2. Family history: Having a close relative with glaucoma raises the risk.
  3. Ethnicity: People of African, Hispanic, or Asian descent are more prone to developing certain types of glaucoma.
  4. Medical conditions: Conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease can increase the risk.

In the early stages, glaucoma may not present noticeable symptoms. As the disease progresses, however, individuals may experience the following symptoms:

  1. Gradual loss of peripheral (side) vision
  2. Tunnel vision in advanced stages
  3. Blurred vision
  4. Halos around lights
  5. Severe eye pain or headaches (in cases of acute angle-closure glaucoma)

Treatment options for Glaucoma

Treatment options for glaucoma aim to lower eye pressure and prevent optic nerve damage. They are:

1. Eye drops:

Medications in the form of eye drops can help reduce eye pressure by either improving fluid drainage or reducing fluid production.

2. Oral medications:

In some cases, oral medications may be prescribed to lower eye pressure. Timolol, Levobunolol, Carteolol, Metipranolol, Betaxolol etc are some of the medications used to treat different types of glaucoma. If you would like to speak to a doctor for free before purchasing any of these medications. Click here to schedule a free consultation with a doctor.

3. Laser therapy:

Laser procedures, such as trabeculoplasty or iridotomy, can enhance fluid drainage and reduce eye pressure.

4. Surgery:

When other treatments are ineffective, surgical interventions like trabeculectomy or drainage implants may be considered.


Cataracts are a common eye condition that affects our vision. As the lens of our eyes becomes cloudy, it affects our ability to see clearly. 

Aging is the most common cause of cataracts, but other factors can contribute to their development, including:

  1. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun
  2. Diabetes
  3. Smoking
  4. Certain medications
  5. Eye injuries or inflammation
  6. Genetic factors

Symptoms of Cataracts

Cataracts can cause a range of symptoms that gradually worsen over time. These may include:

  1. Blurred or cloudy vision
  2. Difficulty seeing in dim or low-light conditions
  3. Sensitivity to glare, especially from bright lights
  4. Reduced color perception or faded colors
  5. Double vision in one eye

As cataracts progress, they can prevent individuals from engagaing in daily activities such as reading, driving, and recognizing faces.

Surgical Options

When cataracts begin to interfere with daily life and visual function, surgery is often recommended. Cataract surgery involves removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The procedure is safe and effective, typically performed on an outpatient basis. 

Human eye Anatomy | Pharmarun | Online pharmacy In Nigeria

Common surgical options and post-operative care

1. Phacoemulsification:

This is the most common cataract surgery technique, involving the use of ultrasound energy to break up the cloudy lens, which is then removed through a small incision. An IOL is then implanted to restore vision.

2. Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE):

In this technique, a larger incision is made to remove the cloudy lens in one piece. An IOL is then placed to replace the lens.

Post Operative Care.

1. Applying prescribed eye drops to prevent infection and reduce inflammation.

2. Avoiding strenuous activities and heavy lifting during the initial recovery period.

3. Wearing protective eyewear, such as sunglasses, to shield the eyes from bright lights and UV radiation.

4. Attending follow-up appointments with the eye surgeon to monitor progress and ensure proper healing.

Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis): Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, is a common eye condition that causes inflammation and redness in the conjunctiva, the thin tissue that covers the white part of the eye. 

Viral, Bacterial, and Allergic Conjunctivitis

1. Viral Conjunctivitis:

This is the most common form of pink eye and is usually caused by a viral infection, such as the common cold or flu. It is highly contagious and can easily spread from person to person.

2. Bacterial Conjunctivitis:

Bacterial infections, often caused by certain bacteria like Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can lead to bacterial conjunctivitis. It is also contagious and can result from poor hygiene or contact with contaminated objects.

3. Allergic Conjunctivitis:

Allergic reactions to substances like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander can cause allergic conjunctivitis. It is not contagious and typically affects both eyes.

Prevention Measures 

To prevent pink eye and reduce its spread, it is important to follow these preventive measures:

1. Practice good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing.

2. Avoid touching your eyes with unwashed hands.

3. Do not share personal items like towels or makeup.

4. Clean contact lenses properly and avoid wearing them during an infection.

5. Avoid close contact with individuals who have pink eye.

Self-care measures to reduce symptoms

1. Applying warm compresses to the eyes to reduce discomfort and inflammation.

2. Using over-the-counter artificial tears or lubricating eye drops to soothe dryness and irritation.

3. Gently cleaning the eyes with a clean, damp cloth to remove discharge.

When to Seek Medical Attention

Most cases of pink eye can be managed at home, but here are some cases under which you must seek immediate attention.

  1. Symptoms worsen or do not improve after a few days.
  2. Severe eye pain, sensitivity to light, or vision changes occur.
  3. Symptoms are accompanied by high fever.
  4. There is a history of recent eye injury or exposure to a chemical substance.
  5. Pink eye in infants or young children.

Treatment option

Pink eye is mostly treated with Antibiotic Medications.

Tips to maintain Good Eye Health

1. Proper Nutrition and Lifestyle Choices:

A balanced diet rich in nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins C and E, and zinc can promote good eye health. Include foods such as leafy greens, fish, citrus fruits, nuts, and whole grains in your diet. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding smoking, and managing chronic conditions like diabetes can contribute to better eye health.

2. Protecting the Eyes from UV Rays and Blue Light:

Shield your eyes from harmful UV rays by wearing sunglasses with UV protection when outdoors. Additionally, limit exposure to blue light emitted by digital screens by taking regular breaks, adjusting screen brightness, and using blue light filters or glasses.

3. Managing Eye Strain and Practicing Good Visual Habits:

To reduce eye strain, practice the 20-20-20 rule - every 20 minutes, take a 20-second break to look at something 20 feet away. Adjust your screen or reading materials to a comfortable distance and make sure the room has proper lighting. Remember to blink frequently and maintain proper posture when working or using electronic devices.


In this article, we have provided comprehensive information on various eye conditions. If you or someone you know is experiencing any of the mentioned eye conditions, please don't hesitate to contact us. Pharmarun has a supportive community that caters to the needs of all patients. It's absolutely free to join our community, where we will provide you with the necessary tools and resources to help restore your good health. Fill this form to join our community.

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